On February 23, 1942, Japanese submarine I-17 shelled an oil refinery near Santa Barbara, California. Sub commander Kozo Nishino’s motivation for the attack may have been revenge. While visiting the refinery as the captain of an oil tanker prior to the war, rig workers had laughed at his humiliation when he fell into a prickly-pear cactus and had to have the spines plucked from his rear.