It is our conclusion that on 1 February 1941 when Admiral Kimmel relieved Admiral Richardson, both officers knew the United States was waiting for one of the Axis nations to deliver a first overt act against the United States that would draw the country into war. We also believe this same policy was known to General Short prior to his 7 February 1941 relief of General Herron.

We believe that senior officials in the War and Navy Departments in the nation’s capital, as well as in the Hawaiian Islands in 1941, understood that the country most likely to commit an overt act against the United States was Japan.

The authors conclude that Admiral Kimmel and General Short were kept well informed of Japanese-American relations. It is our conclusion that Admiral Kimmel and General Short had all of the most essential intelligence that was available to high-level officials in the War and Navy Departments. The same war plans that were available at the highest level of the Army and Navy in Washington, D.C., were also available to the senior most officers in Hawaii in 1941.

There is no doubt that the Axis nation that represented the greatest threat to the Associated Allied Powers was Nazi Germany. We believe that Nazi Germany represented the greatest threat to humanity as a whole. In the direct aftermath of the Second World War the American people could not have been given the truth. The facts in the matter of how the U.S. got into the war, via the Japanese raid United States military personnel knew was coming, would have caused considerable psychological pain to many Americans who lost loved ones during the war.

Army-Navy relations in Hawaii as well as Washington, D.C. were vastly better than some writers have suggested. As a matter of fact, we believe the American people can be proud of the way American military personnel worked together. What we have here in Army-Navy relations is a role model for American society as a whole.

We believe every single flag and general officer in our study performed extremely well in the period leading up to 7 December 1941. We believe that eighty years after Pearl Harbor and after United States entry into the Second World is more than sufficient time to provide the American people with the facts.

We believe the American people, indeed, all of humanity, can be proud of the manner in which the United States so selflessly entered into World War II.

Pearl Harbor brought the American people together eighty years ago. Our people were fully unified behind the common cause. Could it be that learning, understanding and appreciating the facts behind America’s entry via “the back door to war” will unify our people—and we mean all of humanity—towards working together to create a more peaceful world?

We believe it can.

With our sincere thanks and heartfelt respect, gratitude and appreciation, we dedicate this essay written for Mario Vulcano and the Station HYPO blog to the men and women of the Armed Forces of the United States of America, yesterday, today, and tomorrow.

Andy & Debbie McKane
2307 (Hawaiian time), Friday, 26 November 2021
PO Box 166,
Maunaloa, Hawaii 96770

808-658-5137 – Andy’s cellphone (unlisted)
801-837-0098 – Debbie’s cellphone (still with a Utah area code)

Because of the nature of my work and my own shortcomings, I seldom have my cellphone with me. It is for this reason that we normally give people Debbie’s cellphone and not mine. That said, should any questions arise concerning this essay, I will have my cellphone with me and turned on full time between Saturday, 27 November and Saturday, 11 December 2021.

Andy can be contacted by email, and I do check my emails (only on a computer) two or three times daily. My email address is:

A matter still under study by the authors is the relationship of then Commander (later VADM John L. McCrea) and his visit to Hawaii and the Philippines with copies of the then current RAINBOW 3 war plan. After discussing the new war plan with Admiral Richardson on Oahu, and following his arrival in the Philippines, McCrea was informed by dispatch from CNO that Admiral Richardson would be relieved by Admiral Kimmel. McCrea was ordered to go over RAINBOW 3 with the incoming CinCPac prior to his taking command. Item 1 of the above letter states that Richardson had received OPNAV secret dispatch 212155 “one day prior to the arrival of Commander McCrea.” Neither Andy nor Debbie McKane has ever located or read a copy of OPNAV 212155 (Jan. 1941).

Andy and Debbie McKane Biographies

Andy and Debbie McKane

Andy McKane

I was born 26 March 1948 in Norristown, Pennsylvania.  My late father served as a young Navy doctor aboard the USS ONEIDA (APA-221) in the Pacific in World War II.  In the mid 1950’s my dad returned to the Navy and went into nuclear submarines.  My father’s service in the Navy was the major influence on my life.

The Navy first brought the McKane family to Pearl Harbor in the mid-1950’s.  We lived on Oahu a second time between 1959-1961.  At some point while attending either Pearl Harbor Elementary or Nimitz Elementary, I got hooked on the history of the Pacific War.  What hooked me was Samuel Eliot Morison’s multi-volume History of United States Naval Operations in World War II.

I attended 19 schools, K-thru 12, from Maine to Hawaii.  As a child growing up I dreamed of going to the Naval Academy.  I had to give up on that dream.  I simply did not have the grades to get into or even apply to the Naval Academy.

I served as a hospital corpsman in the Navy.  Honorably discharged on 10 November 1971 due to a wool hypersensitivity, not service aggravated, not misconduct.@  I was and remain, allergic to wool.

Several years after leaving the Navy I started my own business.  I spent close to fifteen years in the automobile business.

Between October 1983 and the end of that year I decided to a get the hell out of the car business and write a book.  A friend suggested I “write a book about the Land Rover business.”  My reply was, “Who the hell would buy it?”  It was in the fall of 1983, while still in the automobile business, that I decided to write about United States entry into World War II.  The catalyst behind this decision were two recently published books: John Toland’s Infamy: Pearl Harbor and Its Aftermath, and John Costello’s The Pacific War, 1941-1945.  Prior to reading these two books I had always believed the Japanese raid on the Pacific Fleet had caught America’s leaders completely by surprise.

A failed marriage led Andy One-Track to look for work he could do from home.  I closed the doors on my business on 1 January 1986 and leapt into my research.

After the death of my second wife, Leah, I married Debbie McKane on 25 November 2011.

Debbie and I have a wonderful marriage.  She has been a fabulous help and inspiration to me.

Debbie McKane

My husband Andy McKane has the passion, love, and enthusiasm towards Pearl Harbor that has led him to years of study of events, newspapers, archival documents, interviews, etc. that gives him a great edge on Pearl Harbor and military intelligence. He also has been raised in the military and served in the military. I have far less background and military knowledge. Although I have many uncles that served in various wars and clean up duties, I only know a few stories and very little technical knowledge. So I hope to help my husband explain the military details so that us civilians can understand them better. In this essay, I have come to learn to understand what is in it, but it is still very technical in writing and will be a bit more difficult for the average civilian to read, but its intended audience is more knowledgeable than average civilians.

I was born in Kodiak, Alaska which was near a naval base, but grew up mostly in Montana where my parents were raised and their families lived. I was a country bumkin loving running around fields and forests, swimming in the Flathead Lake as well as many warmer lakes in the area, and having Glacier Park in our back yard. After high school I studied business management and accounting. Shortly after getting married, starting our family and our own business, I did not get to finish the education I was hoping for. But the education I did receive was very helpful. My then husband ran a construction and demolition business and I helped with the books and managing the business as well as many other duties that small business owners get to indulge in such as many errands, helping day to day on jobsites, etc. It was great experience for life and learning to see what I was capable of. It was also great to raise a family and teach the kids a sense of responsibility and duty the average person does not acquire. After a decade and a half, I wore my first husband out, but was very capable of book and managerial work for other trades as well as spending a few fun years in a law office as a legal secretary.

After my children were raised and left the nest, I found myself being able to attend to my education again and picked up a master’s degree in accounting from Brigham Young University and started on courses towards a doctorate degree. But then I met my wonderful husband of now and life again took a change. We were married and my research changed from accounting, which we all know is incredibly exciting, to Pearl Harbor, military and naval intelligence, and political influences. Since my children were busy with their own lives, I had time with my husband to make several trips to the National Archives in College Park, Maryland; the FDR Library in Hyde Park, New York; the Library of Congress; and to Pearl Harbor and Hawaiian libraries on Oahu. I started reading books and learning what I could about the war, the politics at the time, the military and leadership, etc. It has been a fun self-education.

During this time my parents’ health started to decline and I found myself trying to help them when they moved closer to us children. It was during this time that an opportunity came to move to Hawaii and so we purchased a condo that would allow us to spend time in Hawaii but still spend most of our time close to my parents. My parents eventually passed on and we moved full time to Hawaii on the Island of Molokai and purchased a fixer-upper home. For someone from Montana, it was more my style than the big city life of Oahu.

Since we have learned we can access the local papers from the WWII era from our own home on, we enjoy watching the sunset over Diamond Head each night and spending time in our own paradise just a short hop from Pearl Harbor. With some basic carpentry skills, I am having a blast with a fixer-upper home where we both have wonderful offices and enjoy research, bookwork, carpentry, and gardening in the Hawaiian climate with the loves of our life.